Tōru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (born Oct. 8, 1930, Tokyo Japan—died Feb. 20, 1996, Tokyo), achieved worldwide renown for works that combined the tradition of Western classical music and the sounds of traditional Eastern instruments, especially the biwa (a short-necked lute) and the shakuhachi (a bamboo flute), in addition to serial music and musique concrète. His compositions also used percussion in unusual ways, electronic alteration of orchestral sounds, and even silence to return to music the sensuality he thought it had lost.
Takemitsu’s first composition to attract international attention was Requiem for Strings (1957), which became one of his most popular works. Igor Stravinsky and Aaron Copland promoted his music, and it began to be performed abroad. Major orchestras also began to commission and perform his compositions, among them what was possibly his best-known work, November Steps (1967). Takemitsu’s later music reflected the influence of Claude Debussy, George Gershwin and Olivier Messaien and incorporated elements of tonal harmony along with those of serial music.
He also claimed that the Japanese formal garden inspired the structure of his music, as illustrated by such works as A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden (1978) and Tree Line (1988). Takemitsu was active in festivals of modern music and was director of the Space Theatre at Expo ’70 in Osaka, Japan. Among his awards were the Gravemeyer Award (1994) and the Glenn Gould Prize (1996). Takemitsu’s last work was a piece for the flute, and he was working on his first opera at the time of his death.
In addition to concert works, he composed more than 90 film scores, including Woman in the Dunes (1964) and Ran (1985). – (britannica.com)
武滿徹的第一個作品也是他最受歡迎的作品之一，是吸引國際關注的弦樂安魂曲(1957)。史特拉汶斯基和庫普蘭皆推廣了他的音樂，並促使其作品開始在多國演出。著名的交響樂團也開始委任武滿徹創作音樂並演奏他的作品，像是其中最為著名的作品 『十一月的腳步』（November Steps，1967）。武滿徹的後期音樂反映出克勞德·德步西，喬治·蓋希文和奧利弗·梅湘的影響，並將調性音樂與系列音樂的元素結合在一起。 他認為日本的傳統園藝藝術影響了他作品中的音樂結構，例如呈現在A Flock Descends into the Pentagonal Garden (1978)和 Tree Line (1988)的這兩首作品。武滿徹活躍於現代音樂藝術節，並擔任日本大阪世博會70號空間劇院的主任。他獲得的獎項包括葛洛麥爾獎（1994）和顧爾德獎 (1996)。武滿徹最後的作品是為長笛創作的曲子，在辭世之前他正在創作他的第一部歌劇作品。 除了音樂會作品之外，他還為90多部電影配樂，著名電影包括沙丘之女(1964) 和亂 (1985)